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How to Make Your Menu a Money-Maker Using Restaurant Menu Design

There’s more to a great menu than a beautiful design and layout. With this introduction to menu engineering and menu design, you can make more money from your menu.

Menu Engineering Design Hero

Your restaurant’s menu is so much more than a list of food: It’s also your most effective marketing tool. 

In your restaurant, you create ambiance and train your staff to provide amazing, warm service to keep guests coming back, but your guests, first and foremost, are showing up initially for the food, and your menu is where your food gives its first impression. 

The average customer spends 109 seconds studying your menu, according to a Gallup poll. That’s almost two minutes going over each description and detail, so how can you make that time count? The best way to design an effective menu is through menu engineering

Your menu should match the vibe of your restaurant and align with your brand, but you can do way better than that: your menu can also help you increase profit if you do a menu engineering analysis to inform your design and layout decisions.

During COVID, menu engineering is more important than ever. The challenges of this past year and a half forced restaurants to scale down their menus to the most popular and profitable products. This is also known as a minimum variable menu or MVM. 

A minimum viable menu is a smaller and more condensed, more profitable version of your menu that you can create with a smaller roster of ingredients. A minimum viable menu allows you to operate at the lowest capacity while still providing popular menu items and driving revenue. By reducing the number of dishes available, you will minimize your inventory ordering and have better control over costs. Because you’re prioritizing dishes that are lower-cost and higher-margin, you’re making each dish as profitable as possible.

For many restaurants, a minimum viable menu was a way to quickly spotlight their top-performing items, and eliminate those that are not contributing to strong profit margins. But even beyond the initial crisis of COVID, the menu engineering analysis involved in building a minimum viable menu will help keep your menu profitable.

And, when you’re thinking about and expanding your online ordering menu, accounting for different costs can help identify what the prices should be. Online ordering could come with higher prices: delivery costs and 3rd-party fees can really add up. Menu engineering can help you figure out what to price menu items, and where these prices should be higher or lower to account for additional costs.

Menu Engineering Course

Menu Engineering Course

Take this course to make the most of your menu. Learn about menu psychology and design, managing your menu online, and adapting your menu to increase sales.

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What is Menu Engineering?

Menu engineering is a framework to evaluate and optimize your restaurant menu pricing and design to create a more profitable menu and business overall. It involves categorizing all menu items into one of four menu engineering categories, based on the profitability and popularity of each item. Then, you use that restaurant data in conjunction with the principles of menu psychology to revamp your menu design and content decisions. 

According to Menu Cover Depot, ongoing menu engineering has the potential to increase restaurant profits by 10-15%. 

Menu engineering helps restaurants by:

  • Eliminating poor-performing items from the menu, helping your food costs

  • Highlighting your more profitable menu items 

  • Creating a system for regular analysis of your menu, keeping it optimized to help make your restaurant money

Engineering your menu requires knowledge about your customers and an in-depth analysis of your restaurant’s food costs, menu item prices, and contribution margins. With a detailed view of your menu items’ profitability and popularity, you can identify which items contribute to your success and which items are holding your restaurant back.

When deciding who should tackle the task of analyzing and redesigning your restaurant menu, think through who has the most knowledge of your food costs, the performance of menu items, and some background on menu design principles and menu psychology. This may be a group of individuals run by the restaurant manager: the chef, owner, servers, and customers are all important here to provide different perspectives. 

Once you’ve categorized your menu items using a menu engineering worksheet you can use this menu engineering data to guide a guest’s decision-making process so they select your most profitable menu items. But first:

The 4 Menu Engineering Categories

Stars: High Profitability and High Popularity

Your Stars are high profit, high popularity items. They’re cheap to make, and your guests can’t get enough of them. Rather than experiment with these menu items, keep them consistent, and promote them in any way you can. Be sure to make them extremely visible on your menu. If you have a mac and cheese on your menu, we’d bet it’s a Star. 

Puzzles: High Profitability and Low Popularity

Puzzles are the items on your menu that are highly profitable, but difficult to sell. Try to find out why they’re not selling — could they be better described or more prominently placed on your menu? Promoted more on social media? Or, it might be that the price tag is a little too high — sometimes, simply lowering prices slightly can increase popularity enough to produce higher overall profits.

Plowhorses: Low Profitability and High Popularity

Plowhorses are popular menu staples whose ingredients are on the more expensive side. The goal with plowhorses is to make them more profitable. How? You can rework the recipe to create a more profitable version of the same item, or pair the item on your menu with a profit-boosting drink. You can also keep an eye on portion size: Are customers leaving these menu items on their plates? You may want to decrease the portion size slightly while improving the appearance of the dish. 

Dogs: Low Profitability and Low Popularity

Dogs are the items on your menu that are costly to make and not much of a hit among your guests. They’re taking up space on your menu for items that could increase your profits. Consider omitting your Dogs, or you can de-emphasize them by hiding them on your menu. You can also try rebranding and re-inventing the item before you remove it altogether.

Want more action plans for each type of menu item? Find them in part one of the Menu Engineering Course.

Menu Engineering Worksheet

Menu Engineering Worksheet

Use this menu engineering worksheet, complete with intricate menu engineering formulas, to determine areas of strength and weakness in your restaurant's menu.

You must have Javascript enabled in order to submit forms on our website. If you'd like to contact Toast please call us at:

(857) 301-6002
First and Last Name is required
Phone Number is required
Restaurant Name is required
What is your role? is required
Yes, I’d like a demo of Toast, a restaurant technology platform.
Yes, I'd like a demo of Toast is required
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Menu Design for Maximum Profitability

Here’s our step-by-step guide to menu engineering and using your findings to create a menu design that works for your restaurant’s brand and balance sheet.

1. Choose a Timeframe to Analyze Your Menu

The goal of menu engineering analysis is to redesign your menu and shuffle around different items on the page to help push your most profitable items, so figure out how often you'll realistically be able to do it.

Menu engineering analysis takes some time, but it's a time investment that can really pay off.

If you can do it seasonally (or quarterly), that’s great. But even doing a menu engineering analysis twice a year can help you boost your sales: Some menu engineering analysis is always better than none. 

2. Measure Profitability & Popularity

Michael Kasavana, the inventor of menu engineering, encourages restaurant operators to use contribution margin as the metric that indicates how profitable a menu item is. The other important metrics when it comes to measuring profitability are menu item food cost and menu item food cost percentage

Your restaurant point of sale should calculate food cost and profit for specific menu items within the system, but if it doesn’t, you can perform a menu audit yourself by following these formulas.

How to Calculate Menu Item Food Cost  

Calculating Food Cost for each menu item might not be as fun as writing the menu descriptions, but completing this analysis is necessary to help you reduce food waste and curtail over-ordering — and to guide your menu engineering analysis. 

  • List all ingredients involved in a specific dish. Don’t forget the cooking oil, seasonings, and garnishes.

  • Based on what you pay for each item, calculate the cost of each ingredient in a dish. If a single onion costs 24 cents, and each one yields eight slices, the onion cost for a dish that includes two slices would be six cents.

  • Compile delivery fees, interest, return charges, or other expenses related to purchasing foods and inventory. Do NOT include labor costs.

  • Add the cost of ingredients and the costs of purchasing together. This is the food cost for a specific menu item.

Cost of Each Ingredient + Purchasing Costs = Menu Item Food Cost

How to Calculate Menu Item Food Cost Percentage

Divide the food cost by the menu price to calculate the food cost percentage of a specific item. Your POS system may have this functionality. Toast, for example, has an inventory module with menu engineering calculations, food cost calculations, menu item reports, and more within the dashboard.

Depending on the outcome, you can then determine whether you are pricing your dishes correctly. For example, if you sell a meal for $20 and your food costs for the dish are $8, then your food cost percentage is 40%.

Menu Item Food Cost / Menu Price = Food Cost Percentage

How to Calculate Contribution Margin 

Contribution margin, or individual item profit, is the difference between the selling price and the item cost. We will use this number when we map your menu items in the next step.

Menu Price — Menu Item Food Cost = Profit

How to Calculate Menu Item Popularity

Most POS systems already count how many of each item is ordered in a specific time frame, so this data should be really easy to access. You can also corroborate your findings with anecdotal information from your staff — has one of your dishes been selling like crazy after you promoted it on social media? They'll be the ones to notice these insights.

3. Categorize Your Menu Items

Once you know how much of each item has sold in your specific time frame, and how much profit is driven by each menu item, you can plot popularity and profitability together in a menu engineering matrix. 

That's where the Menu Engineering Spreadsheet comes in. It’ll categorize the menu items into one of the four menu engineering categories mentioned above: Stars, Puzzles, Plowhorses, and Dogs.

Then, it’ll show you all your menu items on a scatter plot. Your Y-axis will be the item's popularity (or the number of items sold in the timeframe you chose), and the X-axis will be the item’s profitability (or that item’s contribution margin). It'll look something like this:

You can then draw a trending line through these items to see whether your menu is trending toward Stars, Dogs, Plowhorses, or Puzzles. 

4. Design with Your Menu Engineering Findings in Mind

When redesigning a menu, use the findings from your menu engineering analysis to guide the layout. 

It’s also important to talk to your trusted customers about specific menu items and learn from their feedback. What types of customers order which items? Do certain meals drive them to your restaurant, or are they attracted by your atmosphere? Do your regulars even read your menu thoroughly, or do they stick to their usual order? Mention that you're working on a menu redesign, and ask if there are any items they never consider ordering.

With both empirical and anecdotal information about your menu items, you can go ahead and redesign your menu. Use these four menu design conventions to guide your new design. 

Highlight your Stars and Puzzles. 

Use visual cues to highlight the items you want to sell the most. You could place a box around them, print the item in a different color, underline them, or put a picture near them. You could also label items as “Chef’s Special” or “New” to draw the eye. 

The best practice here is to highlight one item per category so you don't end up with so many highlighted items that none of them stand out.

Craft beautiful menu descriptions. 

According to research from Cornell University, menu items sell 27% more if they’re given a great menu description. Don’t just list the ingredients; use evocative words that pique the guest’s interest. Keep it brief, and don’t use overly flowery language, but make sure the guests know how much love goes into every plate.

Keep eye movement patterns in mind.

There are several different schools of thought when it comes to eye movement patterns when reading a menu. Some cite "The Golden Triangle," where the eyes move to the middle first before traveling to the top right corner and then, finally, to the top left. 

But according to a Korean research study, a third of your diners are more likely to order the first item they see on your menu.

We suggest you cover your bases: place your Stars and your Puzzles — your highest-profit items — at the top-left, top-right, and center of your menu.

Keep your menu short — and try out having separate menus for lunch and dinner services. 

According to George A. Miller, a cognitive psychology expert, most guests may only remember seven pieces of information (plus or minus two) at a given time. When looking at a restaurant's menu, guests often have too many choices to process. 

If you have two different curated menus for your different meal services, it lessens the burden of choice. If it's lunchtime, guests will only have to pick from your lunchtime items. 

It also allows you to play around with pricing and make some Plowhorses (low profit, high popularity) into Stars. For example, if you have a fettuccine alfredo that’s super popular at lunch and dinner, you can charge $13 for a lunch portion, and $16 for a somewhat larger dinner portion that comes with a side of garlic bread. It costs you almost the same to make, and suddenly the item is much more profitable at dinner than it is at lunch.

5. Analyze Your New Menu's Success

A few months after you've done your first menu-engineering-fueled total redesign, go back and check how your sales have been impacted. Then, you can do another round of menu engineering analysis, and make one or two small tweaks depending on how your Stars, Puzzles, Plowhorses, and Dogs are doing. 

Then, going forward, continue to only test one or two things at a time, so you can keep track of what works and what doesn't. 

6. Involve Your Staff in the Menu Engineering Process

Finally, don’t forget to train your staff on your new menu design. They’re your best assets because they speak to customers every day. Your front-of-house team probably already knows which menu items are your Stars (high profit, high popularity) — but if you teach them which menu items are Puzzles (high profit, low popularity), they can help you push those items into Star territory.

Menu engineering is an ongoing process that has the potential to boost sales, decrease food waste, and improve the profitability of your restaurant. With a few small updates, you’ll start to see the impact of where items are placed on the menu, how they’re displayed, and the descriptive words you use.

What is menu psychology? 

There’s a science to how restaurant menus should be designed, how prices should be displayed, words to use, and more that improves the likelihood diners will choose certain items. 

Let’s review the most well-known menu psychology concepts that may affect your menu design.

  • Currency symbols: Research shows that removing currency signs can help diners think less about pricing and more about the dishes they want. Upscale restaurants often use round numbers instead of ending in .99 or .95, which can seem like the item is less valuable or expensive.

  • Highlight feature foods: Take extra time to highlight these items in boxes, callouts, or with expanded descriptions.

  • Menu colors: Color theory can be applied to restaurants and menus to associate the right emotions with your restaurant’s style or mood. For example, red provokes excitement, passion, and energy, and is commonly used by restaurants, while blue is known to be the least appetizing color.

  • Eye movements: As mentioned above, people tend to look at the middle of a page, next to the top right corner, and then to the top left corner, and is known as the “Golden Triangle”. Place your most profitable items there.

  • Descriptive language: Rather than using hyperbole and cheesy language, use rich descriptions with enticing language to tell your diners about each menu item.

No matter what kind of restaurant or menu you have, you can engineer your menu for maximum return by completing this six-step process. To learn more about menu engineering and to become a menu engineering pro, start our free, online menu engineering course here. You can work through it at your own pace, or do it along with your team members. 

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